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DR WHO - Big Screen Additions - Card #22 - WE CAN BEAT THEM BARBARA Strictly Ink For Sale

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DR WHO & THE DALEKS - Individual Base Card from the BIG SCREEN ADDITIONS COLLECTION issue by Strictly Ink in 2008

Dr.Who and the Daleksis a 1965 British science fiction film directed by Gordon Flemyng andwritten by Milton Subotsky, and the first of two films based on theBritish science-fiction television series DoctorWho.It stars Peter Cushing as Dr. Who, Roberta Tovey as Susan, JennieLinden as Barbara, and Roy Castle as Ian. It was followed by Daleks– Invasion Earth: 2150 A.D.(1966).

Thestory is based on the DoctorWhotelevision serial TheDaleks,produced by the BBC. Filmed in Technicolor, it is the first DoctorWhostory to be made in colour and in a widescreen format. The film wasnot intended to form part of the ongoing storylines of the televisionseries. Elements from the programme are used, however, such asvarious characters, the Daleks and a police box time machine, albeitin re-imagined forms.

Plot

Dr. Who,his two granddaughters Susan and Barbara and Barbara\'s boyfriend Ianare accidentally transported to a petrified jungle by Dr. Who\'slatest invention, a time and space machine called TARDIS.

Thetravellers explore, seeing a city in the distance. They also discovera small container of drugs which they take aboard TARDIS. Wishing toinvestigate further, Dr. Who fakes a leak in a fluid link, a vitalcomponent of TARDIS, to ensure that the group will go to the city tosearch for the mercury supposedly needed to refill the component.Once in the city they are captured by the Daleks, who seize the fluidlink for examination. Dr. Who then realises that the group aredeveloping radiation sickness and that the drugs they discoveredearlier may be their only hope of survival.

Whilecovertly observing the captives, the Daleks discuss their plight.They are trapped inside their metal casings and the city by theradiation. They wish to leave so that they can destroy all other lifeand claim the planet for themselves. Hearing the captives discussingthe drugs, the Daleks visit their cell with a proposal. If the humansbring the drugs they have found to them, they will allow them enoughto treat themselves. Susan volunteers to go, being the only one stillstrong enough to undertake the task.

ReachingTARDIS Susan encounters Alydon, leader of the few remaining Thals, aspecies that fought the Daleks in a catastrophic atomic war centuriespreviously. Alydon gives Susan a second container of anti-radiationdrugs, to use if the Daleks fail to keep their promise, and a cape.

WhenSusan returns the Daleks discover the second drug supply, but allowthe humans to treat themselves with it. Susan explains to hercompanions that, according to Alydon, the Thal crops have failed andthey have come to the Dalek city, hoping to trade the anti-radiationdrug formula for food. Again overhearing this conversation, theDaleks decide that they don’t need the Thals now that they have asample of the drug. They get Susan to write a letter which they willleave for the Thals, stating that they want to end hostilities andwill provide food, to be collected from the city, as an act offriendship. When Susan finishes the letter, the Daleks reveal thatthey plan to ambush and kill all of the Thals when they arrive.

Realisingthat the Daleks can see and overhear them via a wall-mounted deviceinside their cell, the travellers disable it and then hatch an escapeplan. When a Dalek arrives to deliver food, they blind it by smearingsome of it onto its eyestalk and force it onto the Thal cape,insulating it from the electrically charged metal floor providing itspower. Ian then removes the Dalek creature from its casing and takesits place inside, pretending when challenged to be taking thecaptives for questioning. Once free, the travellers are able to shouta warning to the Thals who are entering the city and escape with theminto the jungle, but not before one of the Thals is killed by theDaleks. The Daleks then test the Thal anti-radiation drug on a few oftheir number but find that it causes disastrous side effects.Thwarted, they decide to detonate a neutron bomb to increase theradiation on the planet to a level which even the Thals cannotsurvive.

Back atthe Thal camp Dr. Who realises that the Daleks still have the fluidlink, the TARDIS and its crew are thus trapped on the planet and theThals are their only hope of retrieving the missing component. Heurges Alydon to fight the Daleks to secure a safe future for hisspecies but he refuses, insisting that the Thals are now peaceful. Inresponse, Dr. Who tricks Alydon by pretending to order Ian to take aThal woman to the Daleks in exchange for the confiscated component.Horrified, Alydon punches Ian to the ground, then realises that theThals can fight for things they care about. Alydon, Dr. Whoand Susan then lead the Thals in an attack on the city entrance. TheDaleks foil the assault, however, and although most of the Thalsescape, Dr. Who and Susan are recaptured.

Meanwhile,Ian and Barbara, guided by the Thals Ganatus, Antodus and Elyon, setout to infiltrate the city from the rear. While navigating a swampElyon is killed by a marsh-dwelling mutation. Later, Antodus nearlyfalls to his death while jumping across a ravine.

TheDaleks start the bomb countdown. Ian, Barbara, Ganatus and Antoduspenetrate the city and join Alydon and the rest of the Thals, whohave returned to rescue Dr. Who and Susan. The Thals and humans enterthe control room and struggle with the Daleks while Dr. Who yells forsomeone to stop the bomb detonation. Ian attracts the Daleks\'attention and dives for cover as they fire at him, inadvertentlydestroying their main control console, killing themselves andfreezing the countdown.

Back inthe jungle, with the fluid link recovered, the travellers depart inTARDIS to return home. They arrive not in London, however, but infront of an advancing Roman army.

Cast
  • Peter Cushing as Dr. Who

  • Roy Castle as Ian Chesterton

  • Jennie Linden as Barbara

  • Roberta Tovey as Susan

  • Barrie Ingham as Alydon

  • Michael Coles as Ganatus

  • Yvonne Antrobus as Dyoni

  • Geoffrey Toone as Temmosus

  • John Bown as Antodus

  • Mark Petersen as Elyon

  • Ken Garady, Nicholas Head, Michael Lennox, Jack Waters, Virginia Tyler, Jane Lumb, Bruce Wells, Martin Grace, Sharon Young, Gary Wyler as the Thals (uncredited)

  • Michelle Scott as Thal Child (uncredited)

  • Bruno Castagnoli, Michael Dillon, Brian Hands, Robert Jewell, Kevin Manser, Eric McKay, Len Saunders, Gerald Taylor – Dalek operators

  • David Graham, Peter Hawkins – Dalek voices style=\"margin-bottom: 0cm\">Amicus bought an option to make the story and two sequels from Terry Nation and the BBC for £500.

  • Principal photography commenced at Shepperton Studios, England in April 1965 and took six weeks.

  • The film was produced on a budget of £180,000.

  • Although the planet on which the action takes place is not named in the film, it is retroactively identified as Skaro in the sequel, matching the name given in the television series.

  • The actor Barrie Ingham discussed the production in an interview in Australia in 1976 for the Doctor Who fanzine Zerinza.

  • In 1995, a documentary about the two Dalek films, Dalekmania, was released on video. It revealed details about the productions, spin-offs, and publicity campaigns. It was later included as an extra in many of the home media video releases of the two Dalek were redesigned slightly for the film. They had larger basesections, which made them taller and more imposing than the TVDaleks, which were only about five feet high. They had large, reddome lights and some were fitted with a two-jawed mechanical clawinstead of a plunger. They also had more colourful paint schemes.Standard Daleks had blue domes, skirt balls and fenders, and goldcollars. A Dalek leader was painted predominantly black and asecond-in-command in red.

    Originallythe Daleks were to be armed with flamethrowers, but these were vetoedon health and safety grounds and because they were considered toofrightening for a young audience. Instead, the guns produced jets ofCO2gas from internally mounted fire extinguishers. Some of the Daleksused in the background for crowd scenes were constructed from mouldedfibreglass, and can be distinguished by the slightly different shapeof the collars around their midsections.

    Three ofthe movie Daleks were hired by the BBC and used in the serial TheChase.As the film was not released until after TheChasewas screened, this television appearance is the first occasion thatthese props were seen by the a British science-fiction television programme produced by the BBCsince 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lordcalled \"The Doctor\", an extraterrestrial being from theplanet Gallifrey. He explores the universe in a time-travelling spaceship called the TARDIS. Its exterior appears as a blue British policebox, which was a common sight in Britain in 1963 when the seriesfirst aired. Accompanied by a number of companions, the Doctorcombats a variety of foes, while working to save civilisations andhelp people in need.

    The showis a significant part of British popular culture, and elsewhere ithas gained a cult following. It has influenced generations of Britishtelevision professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series.The programme originally ran from 1963 to 1989. There was anunsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with abackdoor pilot, in the form of a television film titled DoctorWho.The programme was relaunched in 2005, and since then has beenproduced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff. DoctorWhohas also spawned numerous spin-offs, including comic books, films,novels, audio dramas, and the television series Torchwood(2006–2011), TheSarah Jane Adventures(2007–2011), K-9(2009–2010), and Class(2016-present), and has been the subject of many parodies andreferences in popular culture.

    Twelveactors have headlined the series as the Doctor. The transition fromone actor to another is written into the plot of the show with theconcept of regeneration into a new incarnation – an idea introducedin 1966 to allow the show to continue after the departure of originallead William Hartnell who was becoming very ill at the time. Theconcept is that this is a Time Lord trait through which the characterof the Doctor takes on a new body and personality to recover from asevere injury or anything that would otherwise kill a normal person.Each actor\'s portrayal differs, but all represent stages in the lifeof the same character and form a single narrative. Thetime-travelling feature of the plot means that different incarnationsof the Doctor occasionally meet. The current lead, Peter Capaldi,took on the role after Matt Smith\'s exit in the 2013 Christmasspecial \"The Time of the Doctor\". In 2017, Capaldiconfirmed he would be leaving at the end of the tenth series, withhis final appearance being the 2017 Christmas Special.

    Premise

    DoctorWhofollows the adventures of the primary character, a rogue Time Lordfrom the planet Gallifrey, who simply goes by the name \"TheDoctor\". He fled from Gallifrey in a stolen TARDIS–\"Time and Relative Dimension in Space\"– a machinewhich allows him to travel anywhere in time and space. The TARDIS hasa \"chameleon circuit\" which normally allows the machine totake on the appearance of local objects as a disguise. However, theDoctor\'s TARDIS remains fixed as a blue British police box due to amalfunction in the chameleon circuit.

    TheDoctor rarely travels alone and often brings one or more companionsto share these adventures. His companions are usually humans, as hehas found a fascination with planet Earth. He often finds events thatpique his curiosity as he tries to prevent evil forces from harminginnocent people or changing history, using only his ingenuity andminimal resources, such as his versatile sonic screwdriver. As a TimeLord, the Doctor has the ability to regenerate when his body ismortally damaged, taking on a new appearance and personality. TheDoctor has gained numerous reoccurring enemies during his travels,including the Daleks, the Cybermen, and the Master, another renegadeTime Lord.

    History

    DoctorWhofirst appeared on BBC TV at 17:16:20 GMT on Saturday, 23 November1963; this was eighty seconds later than the scheduled programmetime, due to the assassination of John F. Kennedy the previous day.It was to be a regular weekly programme, each episode 25 minutes oftransmission length. Discussions and plans for the programme had beenin progress for a year. Canadian head of drama Sydney Newman wasmainly responsible for developing the programme, with the firstformat document for the series being written by Newman along with thehead of the script department (later head of serials) Donald Wilsonand staff writer C. E. Webber. Writer Anthony Coburn, story editorDavid Whitaker and initial producer Verity Lambert also heavilycontributed to the development of the series.The programme wasoriginally intended to appeal to a family audience, as an educationalprogramme using time travel as a means to explore scientific ideasand famous moments in history. On 31 July 1963 Whitaker commissionedTerry Nation to write a story under the title TheMutants.As originally written, the Daleks and Thals were the victims of analien neutron bomb attack but Nation later dropped the aliens andmade the Daleks the aggressors. When the script was presented toNewman and Wilson it was immediately rejected as the programme wasnot permitted to contain any \"bug-eyed monsters\". Accordingto producer Verity Lambert; \"We didn\'t have a lot of choice—we only had the Dalek serial to go... We had a bit of a crisisof confidence because Donald [Wilson] was so adamant that weshouldn\'t make it. Had we had anything else ready we would have madethat.\" Nation\'s script became the second DoctorWhoserial– TheDaleks(a.k.a. TheMutants).The serial introduced the eponymous aliens that would become theseries\' most popular monsters, and was responsible for the BBC\'sfirst merchandising boom.

    Whilein-house production had ceased, the BBC hoped to find an independentproduction company to relaunch the show. Philip Segal, a Britishexpatriate who worked for Columbia Pictures\' television arm in theUnited States, had approached the BBC about such a venture as earlyas July 1989, while the 26th series was still in production. Segal\'snegotiations eventually led to a DoctorWhotelevision film, broadcast on the Fox Network in 1996 as aco-production between Fox, Universal Pictures, the BBC and BBCWorldwide. Although the film was successful in the UK (with9.1million viewers), it was less so in the United States anddid not lead to a series.

    Licensedmedia such as novels and audio plays provided new stories, but as atelevision programme DoctorWhoremained dormant until 2003. In September of that year, BBCTelevision announced the in-house production of a new series afterseveral years of attempts by BBC Worldwide to find backing for afeature film version. The executive producers of the new incarnationof the series were writer Russell T Davies and BBC Cymru Wales headof drama Julie Gardner.

    DoctorWhofinally returned with the episode \"Rose\" on BBC One on 26March 2005. There have since been nine further series in 2006–2008and 2010–2015, and Christmas Day specials every year since 2005. Nofull series was filmed in 2009, although four additional specialsstarring David Tennant were made. In 2010, Steven Moffat replacedDavies as head writer and executive producer. In January 2016, Moffatannounced that he would step down after the 2017 finale, to bereplaced by Chris Chibnall in 2018. The tenth series debuted in April2017, with a Christmas special preceding it in 2016.

    The 2005version of DoctorWhois a direct plot continuation of the original 1963–1989 series andthe 1996 telefilm. This is similar to the 1988 continuation ofMission Impossible, but differs from most other series relauncheswhich have either been reboots (for example, BattlestarGalacticaand BionicWoman)or set in the same universe as the original but in a different timeperiod and with different characters (for example, StarTrek: The Next Generationand spin-offs).

    Theprogramme has been sold to many other countries worldwide.

    Publicconsciousness

    It hasbeen claimed that the transmission of the first episode was delayedby ten minutes due to extended news coverage of the assassination ofUS President John F. Kennedy the previous day; whereas in fact itwent out after a delay of eighty seconds. The BBC believed that manyviewers had missed this introduction to a new series due to thecoverage of the assassination, as well as a series of power blackoutsacross the country, and they broadcast it again on 30 November 1963,just before episode two.

    Theprogramme soon became a national institution in the United Kingdom,with a large following among the general viewing audience. Manyrenowned actors asked for or were offered guest-starring roles invarious stories.

    Withpopularity came controversy over the show\'s suitability for children.Morality campaigner Mary Whitehouse repeatedly complained to the BBCin the 1970s over what she saw as the show\'s frightening and gorycontent. John Nathan-Turner produced the series during the 1980s andwas heard to say that he looked forward to Whitehouse\'s comments, asthe show\'s ratings would increase soon after she had made them.

    Thephrase \"Hiding behind (or \'watching from behind\') the sofa\"entered British pop culture, signifying in humour the stereotypicalearly-series behaviour of children who wanted to avoid seeingfrightening parts of a television programme while remaining in theroom to watch the remainder of it. The phrase retains thisassociation with Doctor Who, to the point that in 1991 the Museum ofthe Moving Image in London named their exhibition celebrating theprogramme \"Behind the Sofa\". The electronic theme music toowas perceived as eerie, novel, and frightening, at the time. A 2012article placed this childhood juxtaposition of fear and thrill \"atthe center of many people\'s relationship with the show\", and a2011 online vote at Digital Spy deemed the series the \"scariestTV show of all time\".

    DuringJon Pertwee\'s second series as the Doctor, in the serial Terrorof the Autons(1971), images of murderous plastic dolls, daffodils killingunsuspecting victims, and blank-featured policemen marked the apex ofthe show\'s ability to frighten children. Other notable moments inthat decade include a disembodied brain falling to the floor in TheBrain of Morbiusand the Doctor apparently being drowned by a villain in TheDeadly Assassin(both 1976).

    A BBCaudience research survey conducted in 1972 found that, by their owndefinition of violence (\"any act[s] which may cause physicaland/or psychological injury, hurt or death to persons, animals orproperty, whether intentional or accidental\") DoctorWhowas the most violent of the drama programmes the corporation producedat the time. The same report found that 3% of the surveyed audienceregarded the show as \"very unsuitable\" for family viewing.Responding to the findings of the survey in TheTimesnewspaper, journalist Philip Howard maintained that, \"to comparethe violence of DrWho,sired by a horse-laugh out of a nightmare, with the more realisticviolence of other television series, where actors who look like humanbeings bleed paint that looks like blood, is like comparing Monopolywith the property market in London: both are fantasies, but one ismeant to be taken seriously.\"

    Theimage of the TARDIS has become firmly linked to the show in thepublic\'s consciousness; BBC scriptwriter Anthony Coburn, who lived inthe resort of Herne Bay, Kent, was one of the people who conceivedthe idea of a police box as a time machine. In 1996, the BBC appliedfor a trade mark to use the TARDIS\' blue police box design inmerchandising associated with DoctorWho.In 1998, the Metropolitan Police Authority filed an objection to thetrade mark claim; but in 2002, the Patent Office ruled in favour ofthe BBC.

    Theprogramme\'s broad appeal attracts audiences of children and familiesas well as science fiction fans.

    The 21stcentury revival of the programme has become the centrepiece of BBCOne\'s Saturday schedule, and has, \"defined the channel\".Since its return, DoctorWhohas consistently received high ratings, both in number of viewers andas measured by the Appreciation Index. In 2007, Caitlin Moran,television reviewer for TheTimes,wrote that DoctorWhois, \"quintessential to being British\". Director StevenSpielberg has commented that, \"the world would be a poorer placewithout DoctorWho\".

    On 4August 2013, a live programme titled DoctorWho Live: The Next Doctor.was broadcast on BBC One, during which the actor who was going toplay the Twelfth Doctor was revealed. The live show was watched by anaverage of 6.27million in the UK, and was also simulcast in theUnited States, Canada and Australia. The show was simultaneouslybroadcast in the US and ran for 26 seasons on BBC One, from 23 November 1963 until6 December 1989. During the original run, each weekly episode formedpart of a story (or \"serial\")— usually of four tosix parts in earlier years and three to four in later years. Notableexceptions were: TheDaleks\' Master Plan,which aired in 12 episodes (plus an earlier one-episode teaser,\"Mission to the Unknown\", featuring none of the regularcast); almost an entire season of seven-episode serials (season 7);the 10-episode serial TheWar Games;and TheTrial of a Time Lord,which ran for 14 episodes (albeit divided into three production codesand four narrative segments) during season 23. Occasionally serialswere loosely connected by a storyline, such as season 8\'s beingdevoted to the Doctor battling a rogue Time Lord called The Master,season 16\'s quest for The Key to Time, season 18\'s journey throughE-Space and the theme of entropy, and season 20\'s Black GuardianTrilogy.

    Theprogramme was intended to be educational and for family viewing onthe early Saturday evening schedule. It initially alternated storiesset in the past with those in the future or outer space, with therespective goals of teaching younger audience members about historyand science. This was also reflected in the Doctor\'s originalcompanions, one of whom was a science teacher and another a historyteacher.

    However,science fiction stories came to dominate the programme, and the\"historicals\", which were not popular with the productionteam, were dropped after TheHighlanders(1967). While the show continued to use historical settings, theywere generally used as a backdrop for science fiction tales, with oneexception: BlackOrchid,set in 1920s England.

    Theearly stories were serial-like in nature, with the narrative of onestory flowing into the next, and each episode having its own title,although produced as distinct stories with their own productioncodes. Following TheGunfighters(1966), however, each serial was given its own title, and theindividual parts were simply assigned episode numbers.

    Of theprogramme\'s many writers, Robert Holmes was the most prolific, whileDouglas Adams became the most well-known outside DoctorWhoitself, due to the popularity of his Hitchhiker\'sGuide to the Galaxyworks.

    Theserial format changed for the 2005 revival, with each series usuallyconsisting of 13 45-minute, self-contained episodes (60 minutes withadverts, on overseas commercial channels), and an extended episodebroadcast on Christmas Day. Each series includes several standaloneand multi-part stories, linked with a loose story arc that resolvesin the series finale. As in the early \"classic\" era, eachepisode, whether standalone or part of a larger story, has its owntitle. Occasionally, regular-series episodes will exceed the45-minute run time; notably, the episodes \"Journey\'s End\"from 2008 and \"The Eleventh Hour\" from 2010 exceeded anhour in length.

    839DoctorWhoinstalments have been televised since 1963, ranging between 25-minuteepisodes (the most common format for the classic era), 45-minuteepisodes (for Resurrectionof the Daleksin the 1984 series, a single season in 1985, and the most commonformat for the revival era since 2005), two feature-lengthproductions (1983\'s TheFive Doctorsand the 1996 television film), twelve Christmas specials (most of 60minutes\' duration, one of 72 minutes), and four additional specialsranging from 60 to 75 minutes in 2009, 2010 and 2013. Fourmini-episodes, running about eight minutes each, were also producedfor the 1993, 2005 and 2007 Children in Need charity appeals, whileanother mini-episode was produced in 2008 for a DoctorWho-themededition of The Proms. The 1993 2-part story, entitled Dimensionsin Time,was made in collaboration with the cast of the BBC soap-operaEastEndersand was filmed partly on the EastEndersset. A two-part mini-episode was also produced for the 2011 editionof Comic Relief. Starting with the 2009 special \"Planet of theDead\", the series was filmed in 1080i for HDTV, and broadcastsimultaneously on BBC One and BBC HD.

    Tocelebrate the 50th anniversary of the show, a special 3D episode,\"The Day of the Doctor\", was broadcast in 2013. In March2013, it was announced that Tennant and Piper would be returning, andthat the episode would have a limited cinematic release worldwide.

    In April2015, Steven Moffat confirmed that Doctor Who would run for atleast another five years, extending the show until 2020.

    Missingepisodes

    Betweenabout 1967 and 1978, large amounts of older material stored in theBBC\'s various video tape and film libraries were either destroyed,wiped, or suffered from poor storage which led to severedeterioration from broadcast quality. This included many old episodesof DoctorWho,mostly stories featuring the first two Doctors: William Hartnell andPatrick Troughton. In all, 97 of 253 episodes produced during thefirst six years of the programme are not held in the BBC\'s archives(most notably seasons 3, 4, & 5, from which 79 episodes aremissing). In 1972, almost all episodes then made were known to existat the BBC, while by 1978 the practice of wiping tapes and destroying\"spare\" film copies had been brought to a stop.

    No 1960sepisodes exist on their original videotapes (all surviving printsbeing film transfers), though some were transferred to film forediting before transmission, and exist in their broadcast form.

    Someepisodes have been returned to the BBC from the archives of othercountries who bought prints for broadcast, or by private individualswho acquired them by various means. Early colour videotape recordingsmade off-air by fans have also been retrieved, as well as excerptsfilmed from the television screen onto 8mm cine film and clipsthat were shown on other programmes. Audio versions of all of thelost episodes exist from home viewers who made tape recordings of theshow. Short clips from every story with the exception of MarcoPolo,\"Mission to the Unknown\" and TheMassacre of St Bartholomew\'s Evealso exist.

    Inaddition to these, there are off-screen photographs made byphotographer John Cura, who was hired by various production personnelto document many of their programmes during the 1950s and 1960s,including DoctorWho.These have been used in fan reconstructions of the serials. Theseamateur reconstructions have been tolerated by the BBC, provided theyare not sold for profit and are distributed as low-quality VHScopies.

    One ofthe most sought-after lost episodes is part four of the last WilliamHartnell serial, TheTenth Planet(1966), which ends with the First Doctor transforming into theSecond. The only portion of this in existence, barring a fewpoor-quality silent 8mm clips, is the few seconds of theregeneration scene, as it was shown on the children\'s magazine showBluePeter.With the approval of the BBC, efforts are now under way to restore asmany of the episodes as possible from the extant have also been released by the BBC on VHS, on MP3CD-ROM, and as special features on DVD. The BBC, in conjunction withanimation studio Cosgrove Hall, reconstructed the missing episodes 1and 4 of TheInvasion(1968), using remastered audio tracks and the comprehensive stagenotes for the original filming, for the serial\'s DVD release inNovember 2006. The missing episodes of TheReign of Terrorwere animated by animation company Theta-Sigma, in collaboration withBig Finish, and became available for purchase in May 2013 throughAmazon.com. Subsequent animations made in 2013 include TheTenth Planet,TheIce Warriorsand TheMoonbase.

    In April2006, BluePeterlaunched a challenge to find missing Doctor Who episodes with thepromise of a full-scale Dalek model as a reward.

    InDecember 2011, it was announced that part 3 of Galaxy4and part 2 of TheUnderwater Menacehad been returned to the BBC by a fan who had purchased them in themid-1980s without realising that the BBC did not hold copies of them.

    On 10October 2013, the BBC announced that films of eleven episodes,including nine missing episodes, had been found in a Nigeriantelevision relay station in Jos. Six of the eleven films discoveredwere the six-part serial TheEnemy of the World,from which all but the third episode had been missing. The remainingfilms were from another six-part serial, TheWeb of Fear,and included the previously missing episodes 2, 4, 5, and 6. Episode3 of TheWeb of Fearis still missing.

    Thecharacter of the Doctor was initially shrouded in mystery. All thatwas known about him in the programme\'s early days was that he was aneccentric alien traveller of great intelligence who battled injusticewhile exploring time and space in an unreliable time machine, the\"TARDIS\" (an acronym for time and relative dimension inspace), which notably appears much larger on the inside than on theoutside (a quality referred to as irascible and slightly sinister Doctor quickly mellowedinto a more compassionate figure. It was eventually revealed that hehad been on the run from his own people, the Time Lords of the planetGallifrey.

    Changesof appearance

    Producersintroduced the concept of regeneration to permit the recasting of themain character. This was first prompted by the poor health of theoriginal star, William Hartnell. The actual term \"regeneration\"was not initially conceived of until the Doctor\'s third on-screenregeneration however; Hartnell\'s Doctor had merely describedundergoing a \"renewal,\" and the Second Doctor underwent a\"change of appearance\". The device has allowed for therecasting of the actor various times in the show\'s history, as wellas the depiction of alternative Doctors either from the Doctor\'srelative past or future.

    Theserials TheDeadly Assassinand MawdrynUndeadwould later establish that a Time Lord can only regenerate 12 times,for a total of 13 incarnations. This line became stuck in the publicconsciousness despite not often being repeated, and was recognised byproducers of the show as a plot obstacle for when the show finallyhad to regenerate the Doctor a thirteenth time. The episode \"TheTime of the Doctor\" depicted the Doctor acquiring a new cycle ofregenerations, starting from the Twelfth Doctor, due to the EleventhDoctor being the product of the Doctor\'s twelfth regeneration fromhis original set.

    Series lead

    Incarnation

    Tenure

    William Hartnell

    First Doctor

    1963–1966

    Patrick Troughton

    Second Doctor

    1966–1969

    Jon Pertwee

    Third Doctor

    1970–1974

    Tom Baker

    Fourth Doctor

    1974–1981

    Peter Davison

    Fifth Doctor

    1982–1984

    Colin Baker

    Sixth Doctor

    1984–1986

    Sylvester McCoy

    Seventh Doctor

    1987–1989

    Paul McGann

    Eighth Doctor

    1996

    Christopher Eccleston

    Ninth Doctor

    2005

    David Tennant

    Tenth Doctor

    2005–2010

    Matt Smith

    Eleventh Doctor

    2010–2013

    Peter Capaldi

    Twelfth Doctor

    2014–present

    Inaddition to those actors who have headlined the series, others haveportrayed versions of the Doctor in guest roles. Notably, in 2013,John Hurt guest-starred as a hitherto unknown incarnation of theDoctor known as the War Doctor in the run-up to the show\'s 50thanniversary special \"The Day of the Doctor\". He is shown inmini-episode \"The Night of the Doctor\" retroactivelyinserted into the show\'s fictional chronology between McGann andEccleston\'s Doctors, although his introduction was written so as notto disturb the established numerical naming of the Doctors. Anotherexample is from the 1986 serial TheTrial of a Time Lord,where Michael Jayston portrayed the Valeyard, who is described as anamalgamation of the darker sides of the Doctor\'s nature, somewherebetween his twelfth and final incarnation.

    On rareoccasions, other actors have stood in for the lead. In TheFive Doctors,Richard Hurndall played the First Doctor due to William Hartnell\'sdeath in 1975. In Timeand the Rani,Sylvester McCoy briefly played the Sixth Doctor during theregeneration sequence, carrying on as the Seventh. For moreinformation, see the list of actors who have played the Doctor. Inother media, the Doctor has been played by various other actors,including Peter Cushing in two films.

    Thecasting of a new Doctor has often inspired debate and speculation: inparticular, the desirability or possibility of a new Doctor beingplayed by a woman. In October 2010, TheSunday Telegraphrevealed that the series\' co-creator, Sydney Newman, had urged theBBC to recast the role of the Doctor as a female \"Time Lady\"during the ratings crisis of the late 1980s.

    Meetingsof different incarnations

    Therehave been instances of actors returning at later dates to reprise therole of their specific Doctor. In 1973\'s TheThree Doctors,William Hartnell and Patrick Troughton returned alongside JonPertwee. For 1983\'s TheFive Doctors,Troughton and Pertwee returned to star with Peter Davison, and TomBaker appeared in previously unseen footage from the uncompletedShada episode. For this episode, Richard Hurndall replaced WilliamHartnell. Patrick Troughton again returned in 1985\'s TheTwo Doctorswith Colin Baker. In 2007, Peter Davison returned in the Children inNeed short \"Time Crash\" alongside David Tennant, and mostrecently in 2013\'s 50th anniversary special episode, \"The Day ofthe Doctor\", David Tennant\'s Tenth Doctor appeared alongsideMatt Smith as the Eleventh Doctor and John Hurt as the War Doctor, aswell as brief footage from all of the previous actors. In 2017, theFirst Doctor (portrayed by David Bradley) returned alongside PeterCapaldi in \"The Doctor Falls\" and the upcoming Christmasspecial. In addition, the Doctor has occasionally encountered himselfin the form of his own incarnation, from the near future or past. TheFirst Doctor encounters himself in the story TheSpace Museum(albeit frozen and as an exhibit), the Third Doctor encounters andinteracts with himself in the story Dayof the Daleks,the Fourth Doctor encounters and interacts with another version ofhimself (the \'Watcher\') in the story Logopolis,the Ninth Doctor observes a former version of his current incarnationin \"Father\'s Day\", and the Eleventh Doctor briefly comesface to face with himself in \"The Big Bang\". In \"TheAlmost People\" the Doctor comes face-to-face with himselfalthough it is found out that this incarnation is in fact just aflesh replica. In \"The Name of the Doctor\", the EleventhDoctor meets an unknown incarnation of himself, whom he refers to as\"his secret\" and who is subsequently revealed to be the WarDoctor.

    Additionally,multiple Doctors have returned in further adventures together inaudio dramas based on the series. Peter Davison, Colin Baker andSylvester McCoy appeared together in the 1999 audio adventure TheSirens of Time.To celebrate the 40th anniversary in 2003, an audio drama titledZagreusfeaturing Paul McGann, Colin Baker, Sylvester McCoy and Peter Davisonwas released with additional archive recordings of Jon Pertwee. Againin 2003, Colin Baker and Sylvester McCoy appeared together in theaudio adventure Project:Lazarus.In 2010, Peter Davison, Colin Baker, Sylvester McCoy and Paul McGanncame together again to star in the audio drama TheFour Doctors.

    Revelationsabout the Doctor

    Throughoutthe programme\'s long history, there have been revelations about theDoctor that have raised additional questions. In TheBrain of Morbius(1976), it was hinted that the First Doctor may not have been thefirst incarnation (although the other faces depicted may have beenincarnations of the Time Lord Morbius). In subsequent stories theFirst Doctor was depicted as the earliest incarnation of the Doctor.In MawdrynUndead(1983), the Fifth Doctor explicitly confirmed that he was thencurrently in his fifth incarnation. Later that same year, during1983\'s 20th Anniversary special TheFive Doctors,the First Doctor enquires as to the Fifth Doctor\'s regeneration; whenthe Fifth Doctor confirms \"Fourth\", the First Doctorexcitedly replies \"Goodness me. So there are five of me now.\"In 2010, the Eleventh Doctor similarly calls himself \"theEleventh\" in \"The Lodger\". In the 2013 episode \"TheTime of the Doctor,\" the Eleventh Doctor clarified he was theproduct of the twelfth regeneration, due to a previous incarnationwhich he chose not to count and one other aborted regeneration. Thename Eleventh is still used for this incarnation; the same episodedepicts the prophesied \"Fall of the Eleventh\" which hadbeen trailed throughout the series.

    Duringthe Seventh Doctor\'s era, it was hinted that the Doctor was more thanjust an ordinary Time Lord. In the 1996 television film, the EighthDoctor describes himself as being \"half human\". The BBC\'sFAQ for the programme notes that \"purists tend to disregardthis\", instead focusing on his Gallifreyan heritage.

    Theprogramme\'s first serial, AnUnearthly Child,shows that the Doctor has a granddaughter, Susan Foreman. In the 1967serial, Tombof the Cybermen,when Victoria Waterfield doubts the Doctor can remember his familybecause of, \"being so ancient\", the Doctor says that he canwhen he really wants to—\"The rest of the time they sleep in mymind\". The 2005 series reveals that the Ninth Doctor thought hewas the last surviving Time Lord, and that his home planet had beendestroyed; in \"The Empty Child\" (2005), Dr. Constantinestates that, \"Before the war even began, I was a father and agrandfather. Now I am neither.\" The Doctor remarks in response,\"Yeah, I know the feeling.\" In \"Smith and Jones\"(2007), when asked if he had a brother, he replied, \"No, not anymore.\" In both \"Fear Her\" (2006) and \"TheDoctor\'s Daughter\" (2008), he states that he had, in the past,been a father.

    In \"TheWedding of River Song\" (2011), it is implied that the Doctor\'strue name is a secret that must never be revealed; this is exploredfurther in \"The Name of the Doctor\" (2013), when River Songspeaking his name allows the Great Intelligence to enter his tomb,and in \"The Time of the Doctor\" (2013) where speaking histrue name becomes the signal by which the Time Lords would know theycan safely return to the universe, an event opposed by many species.

    Companions

    Thecompanion figure– generally a human– has been aconstant feature in DoctorWhosince the programme\'s inception in 1963. One of the roles of thecompanion is to remind the Doctor of his \"moral duty\". TheDoctor\'s first companions seen on screen were his granddaughter SusanForeman (Carole Ann Ford) and her teachers Barbara Wright (JacquelineHill) and Ian Chesterton (William Russell). These characters wereintended to act as audience surrogates, through which the audiencewould discover information about the Doctor who was to act as amysterious father figure. The only story from the original series inwhich the Doctor travels alone is TheDeadly Assassin.Notable companions from the earlier series included Romana (Mary Tammand Lalla Ward), a Time Lady; Sarah Jane Smith (Elisabeth Sladen);and Jo Grant (Katy Manning). Dramatically, these characters provide afigure with whom the audience can identify, and serve to further thestory by requesting exposition from the Doctor and manufacturingperil for the Doctor to resolve. The Doctor regularly gains newcompanions and loses old ones; sometimes they return home or find newcauses— or loves— on worlds they have visited. Somehave died during the course of the series. Companions are usuallyhuman, or humanoid aliens.

    Sincethe 2005 revival, the Doctor generally travels with a primary femalecompanion, who occupies a larger narrative role. Steven Moffatdescribed the companion as the main character of the show, as thestory begins anew with each companion and she undergoes more changethan the Doctor. The primary companions of the Ninth and TenthDoctors were Rose Tyler (Billie Piper), Martha Jones (FreemaAgyeman), and Donna Noble (Catherine Tate) with Mickey Smith (NoelClarke) and Jack Harkness (John Barrowman) recurring as secondarycompanion figures. The Eleventh Doctor became the first to travelwith a married couple, Amy Pond (Karen Gillan) and Rory Williams(Arthur Darvill), whilst out-of-sync meetings with River Song (AlexKingston) and Clara Oswald (Jenna Coleman) provided ongoing storyarcs. The tenth series introduced Pearl Mackie as Bill Potts, theDoctor\'s newest traveling companion. Bill Potts is the Doctor\'s firstopenly gay companion. Pearl Mackie said that the increasedrepresentation for LGBTQ people is important on a mainstream show.

    Somecompanions have gone on to re-appear, either in the main series or inspin-offs. Sarah Jane Smith became the central character in TheSarah Jane Adventures(2007–11) following a return to DoctorWhoin 2006. Guest stars in the series included former companions JoGrant, K9, and Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart (Nicholas Courtney). Thecharacter of Jack Harkness also served to launch a spin-off,Torchwood,(2006–2011) in which Martha Jones also appeared.

    Adversaries

    WhenSydney Newman commissioned the series, he specifically did not wantto perpetuate the cliché of the \"bug-eyed monster\" ofscience fiction. However, monsters were popular with audiences and sobecame a staple of DoctorWhoalmost from the beginning.

    With theshow\'s 2005 revival, executive producer Russell T Davies stated hisintention to reintroduce classic icons of DoctorWho.The Autons with the Nestene Consciousness and Daleks returned inseries 1, Cybermen in series 2, the Macra and the Master in series 3,the Sontarans and Davros in series 4, and the Time Lords includingRassilon in the 2009–10 Specials. Davies\' successor, Steven Moffat,has continued the trend by reviving the Silurians in series 5,Cybermats in series 6, the Great Intelligence and the Ice Warriors inSeries 7, and Zygons in the 50th Anniversary Special. Since its 2005return, the series has also introduced new recurring aliens: Slitheen(Raxacoricofallapatorian), Ood, Judoon, Weeping Angels and theSilence.

    Besidesinfrequent appearances by the Ice Warriors, Ogrons, the Rani, andBlack Guardian, three adversaries have become particularly iconic:the Daleks, the Cybermen, and the Master.

    Daleks

    TheDaleksare a fictional extraterrestrial race of mutants principallyportrayed in the British science fiction television programme DoctorWho.The Daleks were conceived by science-fiction writer Terry Nation andfirst appeared in the 1963 DoctorWhoserial TheDaleks,in the shells designed by Raymond Cusick.

    Drawinginspirations from the real-life example of the Nazis, the Daleks aremerciless and pitiless cyborg aliens, demanding total conformity,bent on conquest of the universe and the extermination of what theysee as inferior races. Their catchphrase, \"Exterminate!\",is a well-recognised reference in British popular culture.

    Withinthe programme\'s narrative, the Daleks were engineered by thescientist Davros during the final years of a thousand-year warbetween his people, the Kaleds, and their enemies the Thals. Withsome Kaleds already badly mutated and damaged by nuclear war, Davrosgenetically modified the Kaleds and integrated them with a tank-like,robotic shell, removing their every emotion apart from hate. Hiscreations soon came to view themselves as the supreme race in theuniverse, intent on purging the universe of all non-Dalek life.Collectively they are the greatest enemies of DoctorWho\'sprotagonist, the Time Lord known as The Doctor. Later in theprogramme\'s run, the Daleks acquired time travel technology andengaged the Time Lords in a brutal Time War affecting most of theuniverse, with battles taking place across all of history. They areamong the show\'s most popular villains and their various returns tothe series over the years have typically been widely reported in thetelevision press.

    Creation

    TheDaleks were created by writer Terry Nation and designed by BBCdesigner Raymond Cusick. They were introduced in December 1963 in thesecond DoctorWhoserial, colloquially known as TheDaleks.They became an immediate and huge hit with viewers, featuring in manysubsequent serials and two 1960s motion pictures. They have become assynonymous with DoctorWhoas the Doctor himself, and their behaviour and catchphrases are nowpart of British popular culture. \"Hiding behind the sofawhenever the Daleks appear\" has been cited as an element ofBritish cultural identity; and a 2008 survey indicated that nine outof ten British children were able to identify a Dalek correctly. In1999 a Dalek photographed by Lord Snowdon appeared on a postage stampcelebrating British popular culture. In 2010, readers ofscience-fiction magazine SFX voted the Dalek as the all-time greatestmonster, beating competition including Japanese movie monsterGodzilla and J. R. R. Tolkien\'s Gollum, of TheLord of the Rings.

    Entryinto popular culture

    As earlyas one year after first appearing on DoctorWho,the Daleks had become popular enough to be recognized even bynon-viewers. In December 1964 editorial cartoonist Leslie GilbertIllingworth published a cartoon in the DailyMailcaptioned \"THE DEGAULLEK\", caricaturing French PresidentCharles de Gaulle arriving at a NATO meeting as a Dalek with deGaulle\'s prominent nose.

    The word\"Dalek\" has entered major dictionaries, including theOxfordEnglish Dictionary,which defines \"Dalek\" as \"a type of robot appearing in\'Dr. Who\' [sic],a B.B.C. Television science-fiction programme; hence usedallusively.\" But English-speakers sometimes use the termmetaphorically to describe people, usually authority figures, who actlike robots unable to break from their programming. For example, JohnBirt, the Director-General of the BBC from 1992 to 2000, was publiclycalled a \"croak-voiced Dalek\" by playwright Dennis Potterin the MacTaggart Lecture at the 1993 Edinburgh Television resemble human-sized pepper pots with a single mechanicaleyestalk mounted on a rotating dome, a gun mount containing an energyweapon (\"gunstick\" or \"death ray\") resembling anegg whisk, and a telescopic manipulator arm usually tipped by anappendage resembling a sink plunger. Daleks have been known to usetheir plungers to interface with technology, crush a man\'s skull bysuction, measure the intelligence of a subject, and extractinformation from a man\'s mind. Dalek casings are made of a bondedpolycaroffere material dubbed \"dalekanium\" by a member of thehuman resistance in TheDalek Invasion of Earthand by the Cult of Skaro in \"Daleks in Manhattan\".

    Thelower half of a Dalek\'s shell is covered with hemisphericalprotrusions, or \"Dalek bumps\", which are shown in theepisode \"Dalek\" to be spheres embedded in the casing. Boththe BBC-licensed DalekBook(1964) and TheDoctor Who Technical Manual(1983) describe these items as being part of a sensory array, whilstin the 2005 series episode \"Dalek\", they are integral to aDalek\'s self-destruct mechanism. Their armour has a forcefield thatevaporates most bullets and resists most types of energy weapons. Theforcefield seems to be concentrated around the Dalek\'s midsection(where the mutant is located), as normally ineffective firepower canbe concentrated on the eyestalk to blind a Dalek. Daleks have a verylimited visual field, with no peripheral sight at all, and arerelatively easy to hide from in fairly exposed places. Their ownenergy weapons are capable of destroying them. Their weapons fire abeam that has electrical tendencies, is capable of propagatingthrough water, and may be a form of plasma. The eyepiece is a Dalek\'smost vulnerable spot; impairing its vision often leads to a blind,panicked firing of its weapon while exclaiming \"My vision isimpaired; I cannot see!\" Russell T Davies subverted thecatchphrase in his 2008 episode \"The Stolen Earth\", inwhich a Dalek vaporises a paintball that has blocked its vision whileproclaiming \"My vision is notimpaired!\"

    Thecreature inside the mechanical casing is soft and repulsive inappearance and vicious in temperament. The first-ever glimpse of aDalek mutant, in TheDaleks,was a claw peeking out from under a Thal cloak after it had beenremoved from its casing. The mutants\' actual appearance has varied,but often adheres to the Doctor\'s description of the species inRemembranceof the Daleksas \"little green blobs in bonded polycaroffere armour\". InResurrectionof the Daleksa Dalek creature, separated from its casing, attacks and severelyinjures a human soldier; in Remembranceof the Daleks,there are two Dalek factions (Imperial and Renegade) and thecreatures inside have a different appearance in each case, oneresembling the amorphous creature from Resurrection,the other the crab-like creature from the original Dalek serial. Asthe creature inside is rarely seen on screen, a common misconceptionexists that Daleks are wholly mechanical robots. In the new seriesDaleks are retconned to be mollusc-like in appearance, with smalltentacles, one or two eyes, and an exposed brain.

    Daleks\'voices are electronic; when out of its casing the mutant is only ableto squeak. Once the mutant is removed, the casing itself can beentered and operated by humanoids; for example, in TheDaleks,Ian Chesterton (William Russell) enters a Dalek shell to masqueradeas a guard as part of an escape plan.

    For manyyears it was assumed that, due to their design and gliding motion,Daleks were unable to climb stairs, and that this was a simple way ofescaping them. A well-known cartoon from Punchpictured a group of Daleks at the foot of a flight of stairs with thecaption, \"Well, this certainly buggers our plan to conquer theUniverse\". In a scene from the serial Destinyof the Daleks,the Doctor and companions escape from Dalek pursuers by climbing intoa ceiling duct. The Fourth Doctor calls down, \"If you\'resupposed to be the superior race of the universe, why don\'t you tryclimbing after us?\" The Daleks generally make up for their lackof mobility with overwhelming firepower; a joke among DoctorWhofans goes, \"Real Daleks don\'t climb stairs; they level thebuilding.\" Dalek mobility has improved over the history of theseries: in their first appearance, TheDaleks,they were capable of movement only on the conductive metal floors oftheir city; in TheDalek Invasion of Eartha Dalek emerges from the waters of the River Thames, indicating thatthey not only had become freely mobile, but are amphibious; Planetof the Daleksshowed that they could ascend a vertical shaft by means of anexternal anti-gravity mat placed on the floor; Revelationof the Daleksshowed Davros in his life-support chair and one of his Dalekshovering and Remembranceof the Daleksdepicted them as capable of hovering up a flight of stairs. Despitethis, journalists covering the series frequently refer to the Daleks\'supposed inability to climb stairs; characters escaping up a flightof stairs in the 2005 episode \"Dalek\" made the same joke,and were shocked when the Dalek began to hover up the stairs afteruttering the phrase \"ELEVATE\", in a similar manner to theirnormal phrase \"EXTERMINATE\". The new series depicts theDaleks as fully capable of flight, even space shape of the Dalek did much to enhance the creatures\'sense of menace. A lack of familiar reference points differentiatedthem from the traditional \"bug-eyed monster\" of sciencefiction, which DoctorWhocreator Sydney Newman had wanted the show to avoid. The unsettlingDalek form, coupled with their alien voices, made many believe thatthe props were wholly mechanical and operated by remote control.

    TheDaleks were actually controlled from inside by short operators whohad to manipulate their eyestalks, domes, and arms, as well asflashing the lights on their heads in sync with the actors supplyingtheir voices. The Dalek cases were built in two pieces; an operatorwould step into the lower section, and then the top would be secured.The operators looked out between the cylindrical louvres just beneaththe dome, which were lined with mesh to conceal their faces.

    Inaddition to being hot and cramped the Dalek casings also muffledexternal sounds, making it difficult for operators to hear thedirector\'s commands or studio dialogue. John Scott Martin, a Dalekoperator from the original series, said that Dalek operation was achallenge: \"You had to have about six hands: one to do theeyestalk, one to do the lights, one for the gun, another for thesmoke canister underneath, yet another for the sink plunger. If youwere related to an octopus then it revival the Dalek casings retain the same overall shapeand dimensional proportions of previous Daleks, although many detailshave been re-designed to give the Dalek a heavier and more solidlook. Changes include a larger, more pointed base; a glowingeyepiece; an all-over metallic-brass finish (specified by Davies);thicker, nailed strips on the \"neck\" section; a housing forthe eyestalk pivot; and significantly larger dome lights. The newprop made its on-screen debut in the 2005 episode \"Dalek\".These Dalek casings use a short operator inside the housing while the\'head\' and eyestalk are operated via remote control. A third person,Nicholas Briggs, supplies the voice in their various appearances. Inthe 2010 season a new, larger model appeared in several coloursrepresenting different parts of the Dalek command hierarchy.

    Movement

    TerryNation\'s original plan was for the Daleks to glide across the floor.Early versions of the Daleks rolled on nylon castors, propelled bythe operator\'s feet. Although castors were adequate for the Daleks\'debut serial, which was shot entirely at the BBC\'s Lime GroveStudios, for TheDalek Invasion of EarthTerry Nation wanted the Daleks to be filmed on the streets of London.To enable the Daleks to travel smoothly on location, designer SpencerChapman built the new Dalek shells around miniature tricycles withsturdier wheels, which were hidden by enlarged fenders fitted belowthe original base. The uneven flagstones of Central London caused theDaleks to rattle as they moved and it was not possible to remove thisnoise from the final soundtrack. A small parabolic dish was added tothe rear of the prop\'s casing to explain why these Daleks, unlike theones in their first serial, were not dependent on static electricitydrawn up from the floors of the Dalek city for their motive power.

    Laterversions of the prop had more efficient wheels and were once againsimply propelled by the seated operators\' feet, but they remained soheavy that when going up ramps they often had to be pushed bystagehands out of camera shot. The difficulty of operating all theprop\'s parts at once contributed to the occasionally jerky Dalekmovements. This problem has largely been eradicated with the adventof the \"new series\" version, as its remotely controlleddome and eyestalk allow the operator to concentrate on the smoothmovement of the Dalek and its arms.

    Voices

    Thestaccato delivery, harsh tone, and rising inflection of the Dalekvoice were initially developed by voice actors Peter Hawkins andDavid Graham, who would vary the pitch and speed of the linesaccording to the emotion needed. Their voices were further processedelectronically by Brian Hodgson at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop.Although the exact sound-processing devices used have varied, theoriginal 1963 effect used equalisation to boost the mid-range of theactor\'s voice, then subjected it to ring modulation with a 30Hzsine wave. The distinctive harsh grating vocal timbre this producedhas remained the pattern for all Dalek voices since (with theexception of those in the 1985 serial Revelationof the Daleks,for which director Graeme Harper deliberately used less distortion).

    BesidesHawkins and Graham, notable voice actors for the Daleks have includedRoy Skelton, who first voiced the Daleks in the 1967 story TheEvil of the Daleksand went on to provide voices for five additional Dalek serialsincluding Planetof the Daleks,and for the one-off anniversary special TheFive Doctors.Michael Wisher, the actor who originated the role of Dalek creatorDavros in Genesisof the Daleks,provided Dalek voices for that same story, as well as for Frontierin Space,Planetof the Daleks,and Deathto the Daleks.Other Dalek voice actors include Royce Mills (three stories), BrianMiller (two stories), and Oliver Gilbert and Peter Messaline (onestory). John Leeson, who performed the voice of K9 in several DoctorWhostories, and Davros actors Terry Molloy and David Gooderson alsocontributed supporting voices for various Dalek serials.

    Since2005, the Dalek voice in the television series has been provided byNicholas Briggs, speaking into a microphone connected to a voicemodulator. Briggs had previously provided Dalek and other alienvoices for Big Finish Productions audio plays, and continues to doso. In a 2006 BBC Radio interview, Briggs said that when the BBCasked him to do the voice for the new television series, theyinstructed him to bring his own analogue ring modulator that he hadused in the audio plays. The BBC\'s sound department had changed to adigital platform and could not adequately create the distinctiveDalek sound with their modern equipment. Briggs went as far as tobring the voice modulator to the actors\' readings of the props was expensive. In scenes where many Daleks had to appear,some of them would be represented by wooden replicas (Destinyof the Daleks)or life-size photographic enlargements in the early black-and-whiteepisodes (TheDaleks,TheDalek Invasion of Earth,]and ThePower of the Daleks).In stories involving armies of Daleks, the BBC effects team eventurned to using commercially available toy Daleks, manufactured byLouis Marx & Co and Herts Plastic Moulders Ltd. Examples of thiscan be observed in the serials ThePower of the Daleks,TheEvil of the Daleks,and Planetof the Daleks.Judicious editing techniques also gave the impression that there weremore Daleks than were actually available, such as using a splitscreen in \"The Parting of the Ways\".

    Fourfully functioning props were commissioned for the first serial \"TheDaleks\" in 1963, and were constructed from BBC plans byShawcraft Engineering. These became known in fan circles as \"MkI Daleks\". Shawcraft were also commissioned to constructapproximately 20 Daleks for the two Dalek movies in 1965 and 1966(see below). Some of these movie props filtered back to the BBC andwere seen in the televised serials, notably TheChase,which was aired before the first movie\'s debut. The remaining propsnot bought by the BBC were either donated to charity or given away asprizes in competitions.

    TheBBC\'s own Dalek props were reused many times, with components of theoriginal Shawcraft \"Mk I Daleks\" surviving right through totheir final classic series appearance in 1988. But years of storageand repainting took their toll. By the time of the Sixth Doctor\'sRevelationof the Daleksnew props were being manufactured out of fibreglass. These modelswere lighter and more affordable to construct than theirpredecessors. These newer models were slightly bulkier in appearancearound the mid-shoulder section, and also had a redesigned skirtsection which was more vertical at the back. Other minor changes weremade to the design due to these new construction methods, includingaltering the fender and incorporating the arm boxes, collars, andslats into a single fibreglass moulding. These props were repaintedin grey for the Seventh Doctor serial Remembranceof the Daleksand designated as \"Renegade Daleks\"; another redesign,painted in cream and gold, became the \"Imperial Dalek\"faction.

    NewDalek props were built for the 21st century version of DoctorWho.The first, which appeared alone in the 2005 episode \"Dalek\",was built by modelmaker Mike Tucker. Additional Dalek props based onTucker\'s master were subsequently built out of fibreglass byCardiff-based Specialist Models.

    Development

    Wishingto create an alien creature that did not look like a \"man in asuit\", Terry Nation stated in his script for the first Dalekserial that they should have no legs. He was also inspired by aperformance by the Georgian National Ballet, in which dancers in longskirts appeared to glide across the stage. For many of the shows, theDaleks were operated by retired ballet dancers wearing black sockswhile sitting inside the Dalek. Raymond Cusick (who died on 21February 2013) was given the task of designing the Daleks when RidleyScott, then a designer for the BBC, proved unavailable after havingbeen initially assigned to their debut serial. An account in JeremyBentham\'s DoctorWho—The Early Years(1986) says that after Nation wrote the script, Cusick was given onlyan hour to come up with the design for the Daleks, and was inspiredin his initial sketches by a pepper shaker on a table. Cusickhimself, however, states that he based it on a man seated in a chair,and only used the pepper shaker to demonstrate how it might move.

    In 1964Nation told a DailyMirrorreporter that the Dalek name came from a dictionary or encyclopaediavolume, the spine of which read \"Dal – Lek\" (or,according to another version, \"Dal – Eks\"). He lateradmitted that this book and the origin of the Dalek name wascompletely fictitious, and that anyone bothering to check out hisstory would have found him out. The name had in reality simply rolledoff his typewriter. Later, Nation was pleasantly surprised todiscover that in Serbo-Croatian the word \"dalek\" means\"far\", or \"distant\".

    Nationgrew up during World War II, and remembered the fear caused by Germanbombings. He consciously based the Daleks on the Nazis, conceivingthe species as faceless, authoritarian figures dedicated to conquestand complete conformity. The allusion is most obvious in the Dalekstories penned by Nation, in particular TheDalek Invasion of Earth(1964) and Genesisof the Daleks(1975).

    Prior towriting the first Dalek serial, Nation was chief scriptwriter forcomedian Tony Hancock. The two had a falling out, and Nation eitherresigned or was fired. When Hancock left the BBC, he worked onseveral series proposals, one of which was called FromPlip to Plop,a comedic history of the world which would have ended with a nuclearapocalypse, the survivors being reduced to living in dustbin-likerobot casings and eating radiation to stay alive. According tobiographer Cliff Goodwin, when Hancock saw the Daleks, he allegedlyshouted at the screen, \"That bloody Nation—he\'s stolen myrobots!\"

    Thenaming of early DoctorWhostories is complex and sometimes controversial. The first Dalekserial is called, variously, TheSurvivors(the pre-production title), TheMutants(its official title at the time of production and broadcast, latertaken by another unrelated story), Beyondthe Sun(used on some production documentation), TheDead Planet(the on-screen title of the serial\'s first episode), or simply TheDaleks.

    Theinstant appeal of the Daleks caught the BBC off guard, andtransformed Doctor Who from a Saturday tea-time children\'seducational programme to a must-watch national phenomenon. Childrenwere alternately frightened and fascinated by the alien look of themonsters, and the Doctor Who production office was inundatedby letters and calls asking about the creatures. Newspaper articlesfocused attention on the series and the Daleks, further enhancingtheir popularity.

    Nationjointly owned the intellectual property rights to the Daleks with theBBC, and the money-making concept proved nearly impossible to sell toanyone else; he was dependent on the BBC wanting to produce storiesfeaturing the creatures. Several attempts to market the Daleksoutside of the series were unsuccessful. Since Nation\'s death in1997, his share of the rights is now administered by his formeragent, Tim Hancock.

    Earlyplans for what eventually became the 1996 DoctorWhotelevision movie included radically redesigned Daleks whose casesunfolded like spiders\' legs. The concept for these \"SpiderDaleks\" was abandoned, but picked up again in several DoctorWhospin-offs.

    When thenew series was announced, many fans hoped the Daleks would returnonce more to the programme. The Nation estate however demanded levelsof creative control over the Daleks\' appearances and scripts thatwere unacceptable to the BBC. Eventually the Daleks were cleared toappear in the first history has seen many retroactive changes, which havecaused continuity problems. When the Daleks first appeared, they werepresented as the descendants of the Dals, mutated after a briefnuclear war between the Dal and Thal races 500 years ago. This raceof Daleks is destroyed when their power supply is wrecked. However,when they reappear in TheDalek Invasion of Earth,they have conquered Earth in the 22nd century. Later stories saw themdevelop time travel and a space empire. In 1975, Terry Nation revisedthe Daleks\' origins in Genesisof the Daleks,where the Dals were now called Kaleds (of which \"Daleks\" isan anagram), and the Dalek design was attributed to one man, thecrippled Kaled chief scientist and evil genius, Davros. Instead of ashort nuclear exchange, the Kaled-Thal war was portrayed as athousand-year-long war of attrition, fought with nuclear, biologicaland chemical weapons which caused widespread mutations among theKaled race. Davros experimented on living Kaled cells to find theultimate mutated form of the Kaled species and placed the subjects intank-like \"travel machines\" whose design was based on hisown life-support chair.

    Genesisof the Daleksmarked a new era for the depiction of the species, with most of theirprevious history either forgotten or barely referred to again. Futurestories in the original DoctorWhoseries, which followed a rough story arc, would also focus more onDavros, much to the dissatisfaction of some fans who felt that theDaleks should take centre stage rather than merely becoming minionsof their creator. Davros made his last televised appearance for 20years in Remembranceof the Daleks,which depicted a civil war between two factions of Daleks. Onefaction, the \"Imperial Daleks\", were loyal to Davros, whohad become their Emperor, whilst the other, the \"RenegadeDaleks\", followed a black Supreme Dalek. By the end of thestory, both factions have been wiped out and the Doctor has trickedthem into destroying Skaro, though Davros escapes.

    A singleDalek appeared in \"Dalek\", written by Robert Shearman,which was broadcast on BBC One on 30 April 2005. This Dalek appearedto be the sole Dalek survivor of the Time War which had destroyedboth the Daleks and the Time Lords. A Dalek Emperor returned at theend of the 2005 series, having rebuilt the Dalek race with geneticmaterial harvested from human subjects. It saw itself as a god, andthe new Daleks were shown worshipping it. These Daleks and theirfleet were destroyed in \"The Parting of the Ways\". The 2006season finale \"Army of Ghosts\"/\"Doomsday\"featured a squad of four Dalek survivors from the old Empire, knownas the Cult of Skaro, led by a black Dalek known as \"Sec\",that had survived the Time War by escaping into the Void betweendimensions. They emerged, along with the Genesis Ark, a Time Lordprison vessel containing millions of Daleks, at Canary Wharf due tothe actions of the Torchwood Institute and Cybermen from a parallelworld. This resulted in a Cyberman-Dalek clash in London, which wasresolved when the Tenth Doctor caused both groups to be sucked backinto the Void. The Cult survived by utilising an \"emergencytemporal shift\" to escape.

    Thesefour Daleks - Sec, Jast, Thay and Caan - returned in the two-partstory \"Daleks in Manhattan\"/\"Evolution of the Daleks\",in which whilst stranded in 1930s New York, they set up a base in thepartially built Empire State Building and attempt to rebuild theDalek race. To this end, Dalek Sec merges with a human being tobecome a Human/Dalek hybrid. The Cult then set about creating \"HumanDaleks\" by \"formatting\" the brains of a few thousandcaptured humans, with the intention of producing hybrids which remainfully human in appearance but with Dalek minds. Dalek Sec, however,starts to become so human that he changes the DNA to make the hybridsmore human. This angers the rest of the Cult, resulting in mutiny andthe death of Sec, Thay and Jast as well as the wiping out of all thehybrids. This leaves Dalek Caan as the last Dalek in existence. Whenthe Doctor makes Caan realise that he is the last of his kind, Caanuses emergency temporal shift and escapes once more.

    TheDaleks returned in the 2008 season\'s two-part finale, \"TheStolen Earth\"/\"Journey\'s End\", accompanied once againby their creator Davros. The story reveals that Caan\'s temporal shiftsent him into the Time War whence he rescued Davros, in the processgaining the ability to see the future at the cost of his own sanity.Davros has created a new race using his own body\'s cells. The episodedepicts a Dalek invasion of Earth, which with other planets is takento the Medusa Cascade, led by a red Supreme Dalek, who has kept Caanand Davros imprisoned in \"The Vault\", a section of theDalek flagship, the Crucible.Davros and the Daleks plan to destroy reality itself with a \"realitybomb\" for which they need the stolen planets. The plan fails dueto the interference of Donna Noble, a companion of the Doctor, andCaan himself, who has been manipulating events to destroy the Daleksafter realising the severity of the atrocities they have committed.The Daleks returned in the 2010 episode \"Victory of the Daleks\",the third episode of the series; Daleks who escaped the destructionof Davros\' empire fell back in time and, by chance, managed toretrieve the \"Progenitor\". This is a tiny apparatus whichcontains \'original\' Dalek DNA. The activation of the Progenitorresults in the creation of a \"new paradigm\" of Daleks. TheNew Paradigm Daleks deem their creators inferior and exterminatethem; their creators make no resistance to this, deeming themselvesinferior as well. They are organised into different roles (drone,scientist, strategists, supreme and eternal), which are identifiablewith colour-coded armour instead of the identification plates underthe eyestalk used by their predecessors. They escape the Doctor atthe end of the episode via time travel with the intent to rebuildtheir Empire.

    TheDaleks only appeared briefly in subsequent finales \"ThePandorica Opens\"/\"The Big Bang\" (2010) as StevenMoffat decided to \"give them a rest\" and stated \"There\'sa problem with the Daleks. They are the most famous of the Doctor\'sadversaries and the most frequent, which means they are the mostreliably defeatable enemies in the universe.\" They next appearin \"Asylum of the Daleks\" (2012), where the Daleks areshown to have greatly increased numbers and have a Parliament; inaddition to the traditional \"modern\" Daleks, severaldesigns from both the original and new series appear. All record ofthe Doctor is removed from their collective consciousness at the endof the episode. The Daleks then appear in the 50th Anniversaryspecial \"The Day of the Doctor\", where they are seen beingdefeated in the Time War. In \"The Time of the Doctor\", theDaleks are one of the races that travel to Trenzalore and besiege itfor centuries to stop the Doctor from releasing the Time Lords. Dueto converting Tasha Lem into a Dalek puppet, they regain knowledge ofthe Doctor. In the end, they are the only enemy left, the othershaving retreated or been destroyed and nearly kill the near-deathDoctor before the Time Lords intervene and grant him a newregeneration cycle. The Doctor then uses his regeneration energy toobliterate the Daleks on the planet.

    TheTwelfth Doctor\'s first encounter with the Daleks is in his secondfull episode, \"Into the Dalek\" (2014), where he encountersa damaged Dalek, which he names \'Rusty\', aboard a human resistanceship. Left with the Doctor\'s love of the universe and his hatred ofthe Daleks, he spares its life; it assumes a mission to destroy otherDaleks. In \"The Magician\'s Apprentice\"/\"The Witch\'sFamiliar\" (2015), the Doctor is summoned to Skaro where helearns Davros is alive, but dying, and has rebuilt the Dalek Empire.He escapes Davros\' clutches by enlivening the decrepit Daleks ofSkaro\'s sewers, who tear the empire apart, leaving behind the Master(Michelle Gomez), who accompanied him to Skaro. In \"The Pilot\"(2017), the Doctor briefly visits a battle in the Dalek-Movellan warwhile trying to escape a time travelling enemy.

    Dalekculture

    Dalekshave little, if any, individual personality, ostensibly no emotionsother than hatred and anger, and a strict command structure in whichthey are conditioned to obey superiors\' orders without question.Dalek speech is characterised by repeated phrases, and by ordersgiven to themselves and to others. Unlike the stereotypicalemotionless robots often found in science fiction, Daleks are oftenangry; author Kim Newman has described the Daleks as behaving \"liketoddlers in perpetual hissy fits\", gloating when in power andflying into rage when thwarted. They tend to be excitable and willrepeat the same word or phrase over and over again in heightenedemotional states, most famously \"Exterminate! Exterminate!\"

    Daleksare extremely aggressive, and seem driven by an instinct to attack.This instinct is so strong that Daleks have been depicted fightingthe urge to kill or even attacking when unarmed. The Fifth Doctorcharacterises this impulse by saying, \"However you respond [toDaleks] is seen as an act of provocation.\" The fundamentalfeature of Dalek culture and psychology is an unquestioned belief inthe superiority of the Dalek race, and their default directive is todestroy all non-Dalek life-forms. Other species are either to beexterminated immediately or enslaved and then exterminated once theyare no longer useful.

    TheDalek obsession with their own superiority is illustrated by theschism between the Renegade and Imperial Daleks seen in Revelationof the Daleksand Remembranceof the Daleks:the two factions each consider the other to be a perversion despitethe relatively minor differences between them. This intolerance ofany \"contamination\" within themselves is also shown in\"Dalek\", TheEvil of the Daleksand in the Big Finish Productions audio play TheMutant Phase.This superiority complex is the basis of the Daleks\' ruthlessness andlack of compassion. This is shown in extreme in \"Victory of theDaleks\", where the new, pure Daleks destroy their creators,impure Daleks, with the latters\' consent. It is nearly impossible tonegotiate or reason with a Dalek, a single-mindedness that makes themdangerous and not to be underestimated. The Eleventh Doctor (MattSmith) is later puzzled in the \"Asylum of the Daleks\" as towhy the Daleks don\'t just kill the sequestered ones that have \"gonewrong\". Although the Asylum is subsequently obliterated, thePrime Minister of the Daleks explains that \"it is offensive tous to destroy such divine hatred\", and the Doctor is sickened atthe revelation that hatred is actually considered beautiful by theDaleks.

    Daleksociety is depicted as one of extreme scientific and technologicaladvancement; the Third Doctor states that \"it was theirinventive genius that made them one of the greatest powers in theuniverse.\" However, their reliance on logic and machinery isalso a strategic weakness which they recognise, and thus use moreemotion-driven species as agents to compensate for theseshortcomings.

    Althoughthe Daleks are not known for their regard for due process, they havetaken at least two enemies back to Skaro for a \"trial\",rather than killing them immediately. The first was their creator,Davros, in Revelationof the Daleks,and the second was the renegade Time Lord known as the Master in the1996 television movie. The reasons for the Master\'s trial, and whythe Doctor would be asked to retrieve the Master\'s remains, havenever been explained on screen. The DoctorWho Annual 2006implies that the trial may have been due to a treaty signed betweenthe Time Lords and the Daleks. The framing device for the I,Davrosaudio plays is a Dalek trial to determine if Davros should be theDaleks\' leader once more.

    Spin-offnovels contain several tongue-in-cheek mentions of Dalek poetry, andan anecdote about an opera based upon it, which was lost to posteritywhen the entire cast was exterminated on the opening night. Twostanzas are given in the novel TheAlso Peopleby Ben Aaronovitch. In an alternative timeline portrayed in the BigFinish Productions audio adventure TheTime of the Daleks,the Daleks show a fondness for the works of Shakespeare. A similaridea was satirised by comedian Frankie Boyle in the BBC comedy quizprogramme Mockthe Week;he gave the fictional Dalek poem \"Daffodils; EXTERMINATEDAFFODILS!\" as an \"unlikely line to hear in DoctorWho\".

    Becausethe Doctor has defeated the Daleks so often, he has become theircollective arch-enemy and they have standing orders to capture orexterminate him on sight. In later fiction, the Daleks know theDoctor as \"KaFaraq Gatri\"(\"Bringer of Darkness\" or \"Destroyer of Worlds\"),and \"The Oncoming Storm\". Both the Ninth Doctor(Christopher Eccleston) and Rose Tyler (Billie Piper) suggest thatthe Doctor is one of the few beings the Daleks fear. In \"Doomsday\",Rose notes that while the Daleks see the extermination of fivemillion Cybermen as \"pest control\", \"one Doctor\"visibly un-nerves them (to the point they physically recoil). To hisindignant surprise, in \"Asylum of the Daleks\", the EleventhDoctor (Matt Smith) learns that the Daleks have designated him as\"The Predator\".

    As theDoctor escapes the Asylum (with companions Amy and Rory), aDalek-converted-human (Oswin Oswald) prisoner provides criticalassistance, which culminates in completely deleting the Doctor fromthe Dalek hive-consciousness (the PathWeb), thus wiping the slateentirely blank. However, this was reversed in \"The Time of theDoctor\", when the Daleks regained knowledge of the Doctorthrough the memory of an old acquaintance of the Doctor, Tasha Lem.

    Measurements

    A relis a Dalek and Kaled unit of measurement. It was usually ameasurement of time, with a duration of slightly more than onesecond, as mentioned in \"Doomsday\", \"Evolution of theDaleks\" and \"Journey\'s End\", counting down to theignition of the reality bomb. (One earth minute most likely equalsabout 50 rels.)However, in some comic books it was also used as a unit of velocity.Finally, in some cases it was used as a unit of hydroelectric energy(not to be confused with a vep, the unit used to measure artificialsunlight).

    The relwas first used in the non-canonical feature film Daleks– Invasion Earth: 2150 A.D.,soon after appearing in early Doctor Who comic Related Items:

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